Archive for June, 2017

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Releases New F1487-17 Standard

Sunday, June 25th, 2017

American Society for Standards and Testing (ASTM) releases new ASTM F1487-17 Standard Consumer Safety Performance Specification for Playground Equipment for Public Use
By Kenneth S Kutska, Executive Director, IPSI, LLC
Chair ASTM F15.29 Subcommittee
June 25, 2017

ASTM F15.29 Subcommittee has recently published a revised ASTM F1487 Standard. Our Subcommittee has been very busy since the last revision in 2011. Change does not occur over night and our work is not over. Our subcommittee consists of 226 members with 182 as voting members. The breakdown of voting class members; 126 general interest (which would be me and most of you), 95 producers, 2 users, and 3 consumers. By ASTM standards this is a rather large subcommittee. Most members do not attend our face-to-face, bi-annual meetings. These meetings are held during “ASTM Committee Week” allowing other playground related subcommittees to participate in the standard development process. Whether or not you attend these meetings in person, every member is able to join the F15.29 Subcommittee. Once a member has been assigned voting status, they are required to vote electronically on each and every ballot item related to the Committee’s standards. Joining as a “General Interest Voting Member” for only $75 annually is easy. To join online go to Membership is quite a bargain. Each year you get to choose one free volume of ASTM Standards. All playground equipment and surfacing related standards are found in volumes F15.07 and F15.11. Each volume would cost a member approximately $300. If you purchase just the ASTM F1487 Standard it would cost $75. As a person responsible for children’s play areas, there is no reason to avoid joining and becoming an active participant in the ASTM standards development process. That is enough advertisement on the benefits of joining ASTM.

How the ASTM F1487 Standard changed since 2011.
The changes in playground equipment design and manufacturing techniques have brought about many innovative and creative play opportunities not even thought of a few years ago. Without stifling creativity the new performance requirements address safety issues brought about by advancements in design, materials, and manufacturing. New innovations in design and materials such as, fiber-reinforced-concrete and new and improved fasteners, connectors, and connecting fasteners are providing options to traditional post and deck systems while creating more challenging play opportunities. Designers and manufacturers have developed more inclusive play equipment and a lot of this equipment is not static. This is all good, however the thought of putting children in motion does raise safety concerns for many owner/operators. When we think of traditional motion equipment like swings, merry-go-rounds, track rides or equipment that put children in motion like a slide we have only our personal experience to as a frame of reference. Today’s designers continue to push the old paradigm of what the traditional equipment types can and should be.

Creativity is a wonderful and inspiring gift when effectively applied for the right reasons. Everyone involved in providing public play spaces has a responsibility to create spaces that embrace the many different types of play experiences. This is best accomplished when designers provide play opportunities with graduated levels of challenge offering various levels of risk. A well-designed play space provides an environment that facilitates a child’s development during self-directed free-play. This is a huge responsibility for all play area designers or managers. Equally as important is the responsibility for the safety of the child when they over estimate or miscalculate their ability.

Risk Assessment by Playground Designers and Manufacturers: The Missing Link
Many owner/operators do not have the knowledge and experience to conduct a play area risk and hazard assessment. Most choose to transfer the responsibility for design, installation, and inspection of playground equipment to outside consultants. However, even with this contractual transfer of risk, the owner still has the primary responsibility for the safety of the public.

Accidents will continue to occur within any public environment. Responsible and engaged supervision of children is the key to reducing serious injuries regardless of whether a playground is 100% compliant with industry best practices. Parents that encourage and/or contribute to behavior inappropriate for their child only add to the problem. A child will participate in a particular play experience when they feel ready to take on the challenge. Child development experts suggest these choices are made after the child conducts their own risk assessment. A parent or guardian, at most, should provide encouragement under a watchful eye and only intervene when absolutely necessary. As stewards of public facilities, we need to consider all aspects of managing this generally unsupervised and unsecured public environment. Many children will not be adequately supervised so the biggest challenge for playground designers, manufacturers, and owners throughout North America is the liability costs associated with almost any injury regardless of the severity. What needs to change is the general public’s belief that playground owners are responsible for every child’s broken arm or leg. Most of these minor injuries occur due to the miscalculation of the child’s abilities. In other words, they have insufficient physical and cognitive ability to assess the consequences of their actions. These very important skills can and will be learned over time on the playground. If children are not given the opportunity to develop these skills on a reasonably safe public playground they will seek out other spaces to play and explore which can present a far more dangerous environment with a greater chance for serious injury.

New Scoping Statement on Assessing Risk
The following information has been added in Section 1: Scope of the ASTM F1487-17 Standard. Section 1.6.1 now states,
“The requirements in this standard are designed to mitigate the hazards typically presented by various types of equipment. New equipment may not specifically fit into the designated types listed in the standard; however, the designer and /or manufacturer shall use professional judgment to perform & document a hazard analysis and follow appropriate requirements to mitigate the hazards.”

The following definition for “professional judgement” along with requirements for any person who claims the playground equipment is in compliance with this standard is directly related to this statement.

“Professional judgment” is defined as,
“the ability of an individual with current knowledge, skill or experience, or both, in the field of playgrounds/playground equipment design, use, or operations, which enables the person to form an opinion or make a decision, or both, concerning a matter within that field of expertise.”

Section 5: General Requirements states,
“Playground equipment represented as complying with this consumer safety performance specification shall meet all applicable requirements specified herein. Anyone representing compliance with this specification shall keep such essential records as are necessary to document any claim that the requirements within this specification have been met.”

Considering these three statements you can begin to understand the responsibilities of every party involved in creating a playground from concept through the day the playground is taken out of service. Owner/operators should not and cannot totally abdicate their responsibility for the public’s safety. They need to understand their responsibility and that of others involved in the design, manufacture, installation, inspection, maintenance, and repair of a playground

Addition to Specific Equipment Performance Requirements.
There are many more changes and additions than cannot be adequately covered in this article. I will attempt to address some of the more significant changes starting with two new definitions to help clarify some of the more technical aspects of each within the standard revisions. Terms and definitions are very important to understanding and applying this technical document. Words can have different meanings. Some of the more common terms used in this technical document conjure up a meaning in the mind’s eye that can lead to confusion. For example, the last revision of this Standard redefined what a swing was, as crazy as it sounds, and established the swing suspended component impact test which addressed several safety concerns. The result has been the development of many new types of swinging experiences. Let’s look at two new definitions and a few of the new performance requirements for “Embankment Slide” and “Rotating Equipment.”

New Embankment Slide Definition
Embankment slides have become more popular as designers attempt to minimize fall heights and the related surfacing requirements within the use zone. An embankment slide must follow the contour of the ground and at no point can the bottom of the slide chute be greater than 12 inches (305 mm) from the surrounding ground surface. The slide transition or entry platform may also be up to 12 inches (305 mm) above the surface and does not have use-zone requirements. Even though the slide is no more than a foot off the underlying surface and the slide exit height cannot be greater than 15 inches (380 mm) above the exit surface it still requires impact attenuating surfacing within the slide exit use zone. The fall height as it relates to protective surfacing requirements of an embankment slide has been an area of concern for some time. Why does a free-standing slide have a fall height based on the height of the top of the slide bedway vertically measured to the protective surfacing below the slide exit? It does not seem logical when the embankment slide bedway must not be more than 12 inches (305 mm) above the embankment. Since the vertical fall heights along the side of the embankment slide bedway are limited to 1 foot and the exit height cannot exceed 15 inches (380 mm) the need to calculate fall height using the existing criteria for a free-standing-slide did not make sense. The subcommittee agreed that the velocity of the user and subsequent impact at the exit required more consideration. The new requirement is based on the velocity and discharge forces at the exit. Other international playground standards recommend that the slide exit use zone for an embankment slide shall have a minimum of (1) meter or 40 inches fall height. The current critical height surfacing requirements of F1292 state the critical height rating of the surfacing must be in full feet measurements. Therefore, the critical height of the impact attenuating surfacing within the slide exit use-zone must be greater than or equal to 48 inches (1220 mm). The embankment slide exit must also end onto a protective surfacing use-zone that is not part of the embankment as well as meet the requirements of the slide exit clearance zone.

New Rotating Equipment Definition
Designs have changed drastically over the past few years. The safety concerns of the old “Giant Stride” or “Merry-Go-Round” were real and had to be addressed. Designers have pushed the envelope of creativity when it comes to the rotating equipment that I played on as a young boy, however, the hazards have not changed. New types of rotating equipment have emerged throughout the world that no longer fall within the old definition or performance requirements for rotating equipment. The ASTM F15.29 Subcommittee has identified the hazards associated with this type of equipment – ejection/falls to the surface, collisions with other users, impact with equipment, and impact with adjacent equipment/supports. Our ASTM Subcommittee looked at the many new and different types of rotating equipment, These new performance requirements are not meant to restrict new and innovative equipment designs rather than to clarify the critical requirements intended to address the above mentioned safety issues. These requirements make a distinction between rotating equipment intended to be sat on, stood on, or hung from by the user’s hands, and equipment that does not rotate freely and is intended to be manipulated by the user’s hands; such as, sand diggers and steering wheels.

Previously any rotating equipment with a diameter of less than or equal to 20 inches (508 mm) with designated play surfaces of less than or equal to 30 inches (760 mm) above the adjacent underlying surface can have an overlapping 72 inch (760 mm) use zone. Rotating equipment with a diameter greater than 20 inches, (508 mm) could not overlap any other use zone but composite structures were allowed to have overlapping use zones. Clearance requirements have not been specifically addressed within the standard other than for a few types of equipment such as swings and slides. Playground equipment designers and manufacturers have been responsible for controlling clearance dimensions that would address the probability of the user impacting another part of the playground equipment including adequate space for user circulation. The question was raised, “Why should rotating equipment attached to a composite structure be allowed without having to comply with the same clearance and use zone requirements for freestanding rotating equipment?” The following information highlights most of the new clearance and use zone requirements by type.

Rotating Equipment: Vertical versus Horizontal
Rotating equipment is defined as either vertical or horizontal rotating equipment and most of these new requirements are based on the overall outside diameter of the equipment and not just the diameter of the platform. Rotating equipment that revolves repeatedly about either a vertical axis (merry-go-round) or horizontal axis (logroll) can be at different angles provided certain clearance tolerances are met. It is the angle of the plane of rotation that differentiates the two types or rotating equipment. The deciding factor is the location of the fixed plane of rotation in relationship to a point 45 degrees from horizontal. This section also addresses rotating equipment which incorporates other climbing and/or rotating components on top of rotating equipment.

Vertical Rotating Equipment: Size Matters
Rotating equipment with a maximum dimension greater than 20 inches (508 mm) measured from the axis of rotation to the outmost perimeter is key in applying these new requirements. In other words the outermost diameter of the rotating equipment would be greater than 40 inches (1016 mm). Generally, it must have a perimeter that is approximately circular and within 2 inches (50 mm) between the minimum and maximum radii. Any component that extends beyond the outer perimeter shall be designed to minimize the likelihood of hazardous impact during use. Rotating equipment with a maximum dimension less than or equal to 20 inches (508 mm) measured from the axis of rotation to the outmost perimeter may be non-circular in shape. Rotating equipment designed for climbing shall also meet the requirements for climbers.

Clearance and Use Zone Issues with Vertical Rotating Equipment
Accessible barrier-free design has helped with the evolution of rotating play events. Historically rotating equipment had to have a minimum underside clearance of 9 inches (228.6 mm). Now rotating equipment platforms may be flush to the protective surfacing; however, there can be no gap greater than .312 inches (7.9 mm) measured in any direction between the platform and protective surfacing to eliminate crush and shear concerns. There are many other requirements related to the underside of any rigid rotating platform but these new requirement pertain primarily to the equipment designers and manufacturers. Unfortunately, some owners may have installed some of the first prototypes of these rather new types of rotating equipment that were not previously covered by the ASTM F1487-11 and may no longer be in compliance with these new requirements. Most of these requirements are also triggered by the diameter of the rotating equipment’s widest platform dimension.

The evolution of the newer types of rotating equipment did not relate technically to the old definition of rotating equipment and the interpretation and use of the term “platform.” Many types of rotating equipment did not require a platform as is already defined in the Standard and therefore many of the rotating platform requirements were thought to not apply. Impact by components outside the point of rotation or openings within the perimeter of the rotating equipment have long been thought of as a safety concern. In addition to potential for impact hazards from perimeter components there are other impact related concerns due to the user’s ability to contact the underlying playground protective surface while within the equipment’s perimeter, clearances between the equipment and the protective surface, and clearances to adjacent equipment. These discussions resulted in a complete revision of this part of the standard.

Clearance between the underside of the platform and the underlying playground surface has specific requirements based on the following clearance situations and dimensions:
• Rigid rotating platforms that are not flush to the protective surfacing must be free from abrupt changes that are rigid and hang below the overall thickness of the platform.
• Clearance between the rotating equipment that is not flush and therefore raised above protective surfacing has to be between 2.38 inches (60.5 mm) and 3.50 inches (88.9 mm) or greater than 9.0 inches (228.6 mm) above the underlying surface unless a protective skirt is provided.
• When a protective skirt is provided, it must be smooth and continuous, tapered towards the axis of rotation to a clearance between 2.38 inches (60.5 mm) and 3.50 inches (88.9 mm) or greater than 9.0 inches (228.6 mm) at the lowest point.
• Rotating equipment with a maximum radii dimension greater than 20 inches (508 mm) which also possess a 108 inches (2743 mm) use zone are exempt from speed limitation requirements and shall be designed and constructed to minimize the likelihood of hazardous impact by any rigid members and provide clearance to the protective surfacing material should the user fall or pass through the interior of the equipment during use.
• Rotating equipment with a fixed, but angled, plane of rotation, cannot oscillate and must maintain a minimum clearance of 9 inches (229 mm) at the lowest point of elevation from the underside of the equipment.
• Rotating equipment with a maximum radii dimension less than or equal to 20 inches (508) is exempt from several of the clearance requirements.
• Rotating equipment shall have a clear area free of rigid structural components of 72 inches (1829 mm).
• Rotating equipment within or upon rotating equipment shall have a 21 inches (533 mm) clear area free of rigid and non-rigid components such as cables, netting, and belting.

Rotating Equipment Use Zones
Historically rotating equipment has had a 72 inches (1829 mm) minimum non-overlapping use zone. Overlapping use zones were allowed if the rotating equipment the diameter was no greater than 20 inches (508 mm) and both adjacent pieces of equipment did not have a designated play surface greater than 30 inches (760 mm). Rotating equipment with a diameter greater than 20 inches (508 mm) could not overlap with any other use zones.

Vertical Rotating Equipment (Merry-Go-Round) Use Zones
The use zone for equipment with a maximum radii dimension less than or equal to 20 inches (508 mm) shall be no less than 72 inches (1829 mm) from the perimeter of the play structure. Overlapping use zones is permissible if the adjacent fall height of each structure is less than or equal to 30 inches (760 mm) above the protective surface. If the adjacent fall height on either structure exceed a height of 30 inches (760 mm), the minimum distance between structures shall be 108 inches (2740 mm). The use zone for equipment with a maximum radii dimension less than or equal to 20 in. (508 mm) shall be no less than 72 inches (1829 mm) from the perimeter of the play structure. Overlapping use zones is permissible if the adjacent fall height of each structure is less than or equal to 30 inches (760 mm) above the protective surface. If the adjacent fall height on either structure exceed a height of 30 inches (760 mm), the minimum distance between structures shall be 108 inches (2740 mm).

The use zone for equipment with a maximum radii dimension greater than 20 in. (508 mm) which do not exceed the speed limitation requirements shall be no less than 72 inches (1829 mm) from the perimeter of the play structure and shall not overlap any other use zone. Rotating upper body equipment with a maximum radii less than or equal to 20 inches (508 mm), is exempt from both the ground clearance and speed limitation requirements. The use zone for equipment with a maximum radii dimension greater than 20 inches (508 mm) and exceed the speed limitation requirements must also have a use zone of no less than 108 inches (2743 mm) from the perimeter of the play structure including a 72 inches (1829 mm) use zone that shall not overlap the use zone of other playstructures.

Single-user rotating equipment, such as sand diggers, which require the user to maintain contact with the ground during play, has no individual use zone requirements. However, sufficient space is needed between all adjacent structures and individual play equipment for the purposes of play and circulation.

Horizontal Rotating Equipment Use Zones (Example Log Rolls)
The use zone for equipment that rotates around a horizontal axis and has a designated play surface greater than 30 inches (760 mm) above the protective surface shall be no less than 72 inches (1829 mm) from the perimeter of the play structure. The use zone for equipment that rotates around a horizontal axis and has a fall height of 30 inches (760 mm) or less above the protective surface, such as a log roll, shall be considered stationary play equipment. No other play structure use zone shall overlap the use zone of equipment that rotates around a horizontal axis and has a fall height greater than 30 inches (760 mm) above the protective surface. The fall height of horizontal rotating equipment shall be measured from the highest designated play surface and the protective surface below. The horizontal rotating equipment surface that is intended to be stood upon shall have a designated playing surface less than or equal to 18 inches (460 mm) above the protective surfacing and provide hand gripping component(s), between 0.95 inches (24 mm) and 1.55 inches (39 mm) in diameter, to aid in mounting, dismounting, and maintaining balance while in use. Horizontal rotating equipment is not recommended for use by pre-school age children 2 through 5 years.

Suspended Components on Manipulative Play Components
There have been many new types of manipulative play components with attached suspended components particularly in the area of musical instruments. Existing performance requirements made compliance more difficult, especially for ground-level musical instruments. Pipe ends on chimes, tubes and other musical instruments no longer need to be capped so long as they pass the sharp edge test. Other suspended hazard requirements were modified to allow for longer connecting devices up to 24 inches (609 mm), such as a cable or chain, necessary to operate the equipment such as a small mallet but must not be attached any higher than 27 inches (686 mm) above the underlying surface. These manipulative parts are also exempt from meeting the projection criteria using the large 3-inche interior diameter projection gauge, since falling on or running into a larger projection that could damage internal organs in the child’s abdomen, are highly unlikely. The use of the smaller gauges still applies.

Flexible Climbing Components
There are more flexible climbing components in the play environment as either free standing or part of a composite play structures. These flexible climbers generally are comprised of a chain, cable or rope. The rigid components found on these play components are primarily intended for structural support and for the most part are not intended to be a climbing component. Almost none of these structural support components would fit the current handrail and hold requirements. Likewise, almost none of the flexible climbing components are made of materials that fit within the current handhold dimension of 0.95 to 1.55 inches (24.1 to 39.4 mm). Flexible hand gripping climbing components must be between 0.62 and 1.55 inches (12 and 39.4 mm). Flexible climbing components must be securely connected at both ends. When they are connected to the ground the anchoring device shall be beneath the base of the minimum required depth of the protective surfacing material or the anchoring device must be vertically shielded. When unitary surfacing material is used, a maintenance access opening is permissible, provided that the anchoring device is not accessible when tested with the 3.50 inches (88.9mm) projection gauge. Some cable nets are more susceptible to stretching over time and require some tension adjustment. Tensioning devices are not considered to be part of the anchoring device.

Falls from Adjacent Platforms
There was concern raised with adjacent platforms when the elevation between these platforms intended for access/egress required climbing components. The upper platform of adjacent platforms must have guardrails or protective barriers on the side adjacent to the lower platform depending on the height difference between adjacent platforms. The guardrails or barriers dimensions are required on the upper platform based on the age of the intended user. Obviously there will be an access/egress opening but the width of that opening needs to follow all the requirements for guardrails or barriers when there is not at least the top rail of a guardrail to limit the likelihood of an inadvertent fall.

Changes to Other Specific Equipment Type Requirements

The slope of the slide exit region can now be as much as minus 10° as measured from horizontal. This should help mitigate drainage and user exiting issues. The slides section now has a new figure to demonstrate how to measure a curved slide’s length to make it easier for compliance inspectors to calculate height/length ratio of the sliding surface on spiral slides.

In 2011 there was a complete rewrite of the swing section of the F1487 Standard. This section states only one multiple occupancy suspended element can be mounted within a swing bay. Traditionally the multi-occupancy swings that were considered to be impact concerns were more of a suspended “park bench” or a “2-person glider type” commonly found in residential playgrounds. Up until 2011 multi-axis-swings were considered to be similar to a tire swing. Only one such swing was allowed per swing bay. Starting in 2011 we allowed single axis (to-fro) multiple occupancy swings with only one per bay. This revised standard exempts single axis suspended elements intended for a maximum of two users from this requirement.

Does the Swing Pivot Point Height Effect Impact Forces?
A question was raised as to whether the impact forces of the suspended component (seat) was effected by the length of the connector to the pivot point. The manufacturer must now designate the maximum height of the pivot point at which the suspended element meets the impact threshold requirements as specified for the dynamic swing impact test. Those impact thresholds must be less than 500 HIC and 100g. If an owner, designer, and/or installer exceeds the manufacturer’s maximum pivot point requirement the impact thresholds may be exceeded.

Roofs and Other Shade Structures versus Overhead Obstructions
These structures are an integral part of a play structure yet they should not become a physical play event. They may be at any angle, provided that the roof line (lowest edge), excluding support members, is at least 84 inches (2130 mm) above the underlying designated play surface and the pivot point of a swing. The problem arises when the lowest edge of the roof or shade structure line is too close to a designated play surface. In the case of a swing it would include the area the user occupies when in the full range of motion. Therefore these structures must maintain a clearance above the protective surfacing within the use zone of a swing of X + 42 inches (1065 mm), where X is the distance from the pivot point of the swing to the underlying protective surface.

Roofs that are an integral part of a play structure and are less than 84 inches (2130mm) above the designated play surface shall contain no designated play surfaces and their support members shall be designed to discourage climbing. Roofs or shade structures that conform to these requirements do not have a fall height requirement.

All parties involved in the final design and plan approval of the playground should consider the intent of this section when designing and using roofs on play equipment.

Playground Layout as Related to “Play Functionally Linked”
The use of the term “Play Functionally Linked” has successfully been put into practice to create many interesting continuous play opportunities and playground designs. Unfortunately it has also been abused by some to get around equipment use zone requirements and site related spatial limitations. As I discussed earlier in this article, the new standard scoping statement requires the playground designer and manufacturer to conduct a hazard analysis for each individual piece of play equipment. This should include how any particular piece of equipment relates to all the other play opportunities that make up a composite piece of equipment and the entire play space. I strongly suggest the owner conduct their own such risk and hazard assessment. What may be considered compliant design may not always be considered good design. ASTM F1487 has previously addressed the acceptable distance between stepping forms based on child developmental factors and anthropometrics of the intended users but there are many other types of stepping surfaces and climbers with stepping surfaces that when placed adjacent to one another are being labeled “play functionally linked.” This revision requires two or more adjacent play components, intended to be considered play functionally linked, to not be greater than 12 inches (300 mm) apart for 2 through 5 year old children and 18 inches (460 mm) for 5 through 12 year old children. These dimensions are measured edge to edge between the adjacent stepping surfaces and address the stepping capabilities when there is a change in elevation between adjacent stepping surface elevations.

WARNING! ASTM F1487 does not specifically address or differentiate between stepping and climbing surfaces on adjacent play functionally linked play components. The designer, manufacturer, and owner should consider how the intended user group will use the climbing equipment in relationship to other adjacent functionally linked stepping or climbing equipment and assess where the user may fall if they fail to use the climbing equipment as intended.

Consider a scenerio where stepping forms or a balance beam is linked to a vertical-climbing-net. Where is the intended path of travel? How will the user use and interact with each piece of functionally linked component? Is access and path of intended travel from the side or will the user need to climb vertically up or across functionally linked component putting the user considerably higher than the adjacent linked stepping component? Will the fall height be far greater than 30 inches without consideration for a minimum use zone free of obstacles? Regardless, each stepping play surface that is adjacent to the climbing net or any other designated play surface must meet the spacing requirements of this new section. Owners, designers, and manufacturers need to consider how the user will interact with all the functionally-linked equipment and consider mitigation measures to address related safety concerns.

Playground Maintenance: It’s Your Duty
The standard requires the owner/operator to inspect, maintain and repair each play structure within the playground and the impact attenuating surfacing in accordance to the designer/manufacturer’s installation and maintenance instructions. Beyond maintaining the equipment’s function and surfacing impact attenuation it also will assure the playground remains compliant and, where applicable, continue to meet the intent of the DOJ 2010 Standard for Accessible Design. To that end the owner/operator shall make periodic inspections of each play structure and remove any extraneous materials from the equipment or impact attenuating surfacing that could cause injury, infection, or disease. This could include litter, blood borne pathogens, wildlife excrement, and ropes tied to play equipment.

The owner/operator must also establish and maintain detailed installation, assembly, inspection, maintenance, and repair records for each public-use playground equipment area. Section 11 of this Standard details who is responsible for providing most of the information necessary to fulfill the above documentation requirement.

Next to the lack of supervision or inappropriate unintended use of play equipment, the lack of adequate maintenance of play equipment and surfacing within the use zone, is the second leading cause of most serious playground related injuries. We have a lot of work ahead of us so let’s get to work.

This has been a general overview of most of the changes to the ASTM F1487-11 Standard Consumer Safety Performance Specification for Playground Equipment for Public Use. You can acquire a copy of this new ASTM F1487-17 document by ordering online,